Historically and artistically valuable pieces gathered in the historical collection represent an important source for the study of material culture and events, historic figures and places significant for the history of the Czech lands, and are also of great importance for the study of the economic, political, social and cultural life in this area in the given period (9th century to 1918, with some wider context). The collection focuses on items associated with the history of populations in the territory of today's Bohemia, Moravia and Silesia, and marginally it is concerned with other territories whose histories were in some way related to Czech history in the given period.

Due to the historical circumstances of its foundation, its diverse acquisition options and the character of the collected pieces, the collection of the department of early Czech history is one of the most numerous (almost 200,000 items) and most diverse in the entire National Museum. Its individual sections differ from one another in terms of their scope, importance, and level of professional processing and use.

The historical collection consists of several sections: history and archaeology; statues and fragments of stone architecture; plaster models and casts; weapons and armour; liturgical objects; apothecary tools; porcelain; glass; objects made of non-precious metals; bells; precious-metal objects; jewellery; gemstones; medals, orders and decorations; badges; toys and games; wooden items; woodcarvings; textiles; paintings and miniatures; prints; historical furniture, items from precious natural materials; wax items; small religious pictures; maps and plans; drawings; photographs and glass plates; postcards; prints and other works on paper; printing blocks and plates; stationary; seals; sewing accessories; clocks and astronomical and measuring instruments; handicraft tools; cutlery; smoking accessories; cases and sachets; and personal memorials of significant historical figures.