The archaeological collection systematically documents the life and development of the society of prehistoric and Early Medieval Bohemia in all periods within the context of Europe. Czech lands have always been the main collection area for the creation of the archaeological collection.

The collections are divided chronologically according to archaeological culture and historical period – the Stone Age (Lower, Middle and Upper Palaeolithic), the Bronze Age, the Iron Age (Early and Late), the Roman Empire, the Migration Period and the Early Middle Ages – each of them having their own curator who scientifically evaluates the relevant part of the collection.